As oil and gas production continues to increase in North America, the need for geophysical exploration grows with it. Seismic surveyors are adapting to meet the challenges posed by increased demand, cost constrains and environmental concern.
For decades, California's Hetch Hetchy water system has supplied water to the San Francisco Bay Area. But the aging system is nearing the end of its useful life and is seismically vulnerable. Constructing a solution requires accurate, nerve-racking surveying.
It’s come a long way in a short time. In the mid-1990s, GPS was moving into the surveying mainstream. Post-processed static or kinematic methods using briefcase-sized receivers were the primary techniques for GPS surveying, which focused heavily on control and geodetic applications.